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Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(8):718-24
Psychiatric Clinics of North America,
2008, 31(2):271-91 (invited review)
Suicide in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age has increased in many countries, warranting research and clinical awareness. International reported suicide rates per 100,000 in this young population vary between 3.1 and 0 (mean rate worldwide, approximately 0.6/100.000; male-female ratio, 2:1). Suicide occurs only in vulnerable children; this vulnerability begins with parental mood disorder and impulsive aggression, and family history of suicide. Childhood affective and disruptive disorders and abuse are the most often reported psychiatric risk factors. Suicide becomes increasingly common after puberty, most probably because of pubertal onset of depression and substance abuse, which substantially aggravate suicide risk. Biologic findings are scarce; however, serotonergic dysfunction is assumed. The most common precipitants are school and family problems and may include actual/anticipated transitions in these environments. Suicides in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age often follow a brief period of stress. Cognitive immaturity/misjudgment, age-related impulsivity, and availability of suicide methods play an important role. Psychologic autopsy studies that focus on suicides in this age group are needed.
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 2007,
4:133-139 (invited review)
In this review, the research on suicidal
behavior among children and adolescents in Austria to date will be summarized.
Journal of Psychiatric Research,
2008, 42(10):815-21. Epub 2007 Nov 26.
BACKGROUND: Moral and religious objections
to suicide (MOS) are reported to be associated with less suicidal behavior in
depressed patients, and are proposed to act as a protective factor against
suicidal behavior. It is unclear whether MOS are a protective factor against
suicide attempt per se, or if this effect is mediated through other variables.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 2008,
METHODS: The timing of all 65,206 suicides (46,451 men; 18,755 women) officially registered in Austria between 1970 and 2006 was analyzed with respect to the phases of the moon. This was the first such study based on national data conducted outside the USA, with the database comprising the second-longest study period and the second-largest sample ever investigated in this subject area.
RESULTS: Observed proportions of both male and female suicide occurrence did not deviate from expected proportions during the new, crescent, full, and decrescent moon quarters or from those expected for 3-day windows centered around new and full moon, relative to the interphase. Subgroup analysis (by sex and year), additionally conducted for demonstration purposes, yielded results conspicuously resembling those of related studies with positive findings; namely, sporadically emerging significant findings that were entirely absent in the overall analysis and directionally erratic, thus suggesting they were spurious (false positive).
CONCLUSIONS: This large-sample evidence strongly suggests no lunar effects on the timing of completed suicide. Scattered previous evidence in support of such effects in all likelihood was spurious; that is, was due to statistical type 1 errors or erroneously taking calendrical periodicities of suicide occurrence that are real as evidence for lunar effects.
Journal of psychiatric research, 2007,
Previous reports suggest that massive hormonal changes that accompany the peripartum period may trigger perinatal depression. We investigated the relationship between magnitude of change and total level of estrogen and progesterone and grade of peripartal depression and depressive symptoms. One hundred and ninety two women were assessed in the 38th week of pregnancy (SDS scores), peripartum period (DSM-III-R diagnosis (n=105); SDS scores) and 6 months postpartum (EPDS; n=89) regarding diagnosis of depression, self-ratings of depressive symptoms and levels of estrogen and progesterone. The comparison of three diagnostic groups (lifetime major depressive disorder MDD (N=7), MDD at birth (N=12), healthy controls (N=70) showed that there were no differences in the magnitude of decline of estrogen and progesterone from day 1 to day 3 after birth . With respect to total levels of estrogen and progesterone, estrogen on day 3 was significantly higher [F(2,92)=6.6, p<0.05] in women with current MDD than in those with lifetime MDD or normal controls. Depression scores were significantly higher at the end of pregnancy (12.6% self-identified as depressed) than in postpartum period (5.8% day 3 p<.0004; 9.2% day 5 p<.008), whereas 13.3% of women received a DSM-III -R diagnosis for MDD 5 days postpartum. The results were in contrast to the current hypotheses of estrogen withdrawal or hypogonadal levels as an etiological factor for peripartum depression. But a limitation of the actual study is the low number of subjects with depression; therefore the current non-significant findings should be interpreted with great caution.
The American journal of psychiatry, 2007, 164(2):
Arch Suicide Res, 2007, 11(1): 83-90
There is some evidence for an association between Cluster C Personality Disorders (CCPD) and suicidal behavior. We compared depressed inpatients with and without CCPD in terms of suicidal behavior and associated psychopathology. Cluster A or B personality disorder co-morbidity were exclusion criteria for both groups (cases and controls). Depressed inpatients with "pure" CCPD had higher levels of suicidal ideation but not more previous suicide attempts compared with patients without CCPD. Greater suicidal ideation in depressed patients with CCPD in our study was associated with more hostility. Future studies examining the relationship between suicidal ideation and hostility in CCPD may clarify whether treatment focused on hostility might be of use for decreasing suicidal ideation in depressed patients with CCPD (Spitzer, Williams, Gibbon et al., 1990).
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 2007, 119(5-6): 174-80
OBJECTIVE: Suicidality spans a spectrum ranging from suicidal thoughts to suicidal acts, and suicidal ideation is more prevalent in youth populations, suggesting important developmental issues. We assessed the prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation and associated psychosocial factors among Viennese high school students. METHOD: An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major psychiatric risk factors of teenage suicide was completed by students at three Viennese high schools (n = 214; mean age 15.4 years). RESULTS: Eighty-one (37.9%) high school students reported having had suicidal thoughts at some point in their lives, girls significantly more often than boys (48.5% vs. 29.1%, P = 0.004). Furthermore, lifetime suicidal ideation in Viennese high school students was associated with living in broken-home families, cigarette smoking, substance problems (alcohol/drugs), self-reported depression, and high school type (the highest prevalence was in grammar school). After adjusting for confounders, we found that female gender, substance problems, school type and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with lifetime suicidal ideation in Viennese high school students. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial factors associated with adolescent suicidal ideation require attention in the contexts of suicide prevention and mental health promotion.
Archives of women's mental health, 2006, 9(5):
BACKGROUND: To date there has been no study investigating mother-infant bonding impairment and its link to pospartum depressive symptoms in a representative German population sample. The present study therefore aimed to carry out initial analyses of the psychometric properties of the German version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). METHODS: Eight hundred and sixty two mothers provided the data for a principal component analysis of the original 25 item PBQ. This analysis was used to assess the validity of the four scale structure of the questionnaire. Correlations between postpartum depression, sociodemographic variables and bonding impairment were additionally calculated. FINDINGS: On the basis of our data, the original 4 factor structure of the PBQ scale was not confirmed. Nine items did not meaningfully load onto the single factor accounting for the most variance. Mother-infant bonding impairment and postpartum depression were shown to be significantly positively correlated. According to the factor solution of Brockington we found a 7.1% rate of mothers with bonding impairment two weeks postpartum (with 95% confidence ranging from 5.5 to 9%). INTERPRETATION: An abridged 16 item German version of the PBQ can be implemented as a reliable screening instrument for bonding impairment.
The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 2006, 67(2):
BACKGROUND: Herbal preparations for depression, such as St. John's wort, are often preferred over pharmaceutical preparations by mothers and midwives after childbirth because these preparations are available to patients as over-the-counter "natural" treatments and are popularly assumed to be safe. The only existing report on St. John's wort excretion into human milk showed that only 1 active component (hyperforin) was detectable in breast milk, but was not detectable in the infants' plasma. Another report found more cases of minor problems in infants breast-fed by women taking St. John's wort. However, significance was reached only in comparison with disease-matched women (p<.01), not healthy controls (p=.20). METHOD: Five mothers who were taking 300 mg of St. John's wort 3 times daily (LI 160 [Jarsin], Lichtwer Pharma GmbH; Berlin, Germany) and their breastfed infants were assessed. Thirty-six breast milk samples (foremilk and hindmilk collected during an 18-hour period) and 5 mothers' and 2 infants' plasma samples were analyzed for hyperforin levels by tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS; limit of quantification=0.1 ng/mL). Data were gathered from January 2001 to February 2002. RESULTS: Hyperforin is excreted into breast milk at low levels. However, the compound was at the limit of quantification in the 2 infants' plasma samples (0.1 ng/mL). Milk/plasma ratios ranged from 0.04 to 0.13. The relative infant doses of 0.9% to 2.5% indicate that infant exposure to hyperforin through milk is comparable to levels reported in most studies assessing anti-depressants or neuroleptics. No side effects were seen in the mothers or infants. CONCLUSION: These results add to the evidence of the relative safety of St. John's wort while breast-feeding found in previous observational studies.
Archives of women's mental health, 2006, 9(5): 289-91
Mother-infant bonding disorders include a distressing lack of maternal feeling, irritability, hostility and aggressive impulses, pathological ideas and outright rejection. They are quite common in mothers referred for psychiatric help and are present in 29% of mothers diagnosed with postnatal depression (Brockington et al, 2001). In cases of postpartum depression The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) is best used together with The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to evaluate the treatment process for both variables: depression and difficulties of the mother to relate to her child (Klier and Muzik, 2004). Two cases vignettes from clinical practice are presented to illustrate this procedure. The use of the PBQ allows the clinician to screen for mother-infant relationship disorders and to assess the severity of the disorder. In the case of high scores on the PBQ it is crucial to attend to the relationship problems and assess if they are still present beyond the recovery from depression.
Bipolar disorders, 2006, 8(5 Pt 1): 496-502
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this retrospective study was to examine factors differentiating persons with bipolar disorder who did or did not have comorbid lifetime substance use disorders (SUD) at an index assessment. We also explored the chronology of onset of mood and SUD. METHODS: We studied 146 subjects with DSM-defined bipolar disorder. Subgroups with and without lifetime SUD were compared on demographic and clinical measures. RESULTS: Substance abuse disorders in this bipolar sample were associated with male sex, impulsive-aggressive traits, comorbid conduct and Cluster B personality disorders, number of suicide attempts and earlier age at onset of a first mood episode. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, male sex and aggression and possibly earlier age at mood disorder onset were associated with SUD. In those with or without SUD, the first mood episode tended to be depressive and to precede the onset of SUD. CONCLUSIONS: In persons with bipolar disorder, an earlier age of onset and aggressive traits appear to be factors associated with later development of comorbid SUD.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 2006,
Most previous studies compared suicidal behavior in subjects with and without a history of childhood abuse, whereas less attention was paid to the comparison of suicide attempters and nonattempters among subjects reporting childhood abuse. To identify risk and protective factors against suicidal behavior, we compared suicide attempters with nonattempters among the sample of 119 depressed inpatients who reported childhood abuse. Compared with nonattempters, suicide attempters were younger, had more self-rated depression severity and suicidal ideation, higher trait aggression and more cluster B personality disorder comorbidity, less coping potential, and fewer moral objections to suicide (MOS)/religious beliefs. Logistic regression showed that more severe suicidal ideation and fewer MOS/religious beliefs were associated with suicidal acts in subjects with reported childhood abuse. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and MOS/religious beliefs were significantly inversely correlated. The results of this clinical study add support to previous reports that religious/spiritual coping could serve as an additional resource in prevention of suicidal behavior for subjects with reported childhood abuse.
Suicide & life-threatening behavior, 2006, 36(5):
The prevalence of suicide risk factors and attitudes about suicide and help-seeking among New York and Viennese adolescents were compared in order to explore possible cross-cultural differences. Viennese adolescents exhibited higher rates of depressive symptomatology than their New York counterparts and had more first-hand experience with suicidal peers. More attribution of suicide to mental illness was reported in Vienna; yet Viennese youth were less likely than New York adolescents to recognize the seriousness of suicide threats. Help-seeking patterns of Viennese adolescents were influenced by their setting a high value on confidentiality. These cross-cultural differences may reflect the limited exposure of Austrian youth to school-based suicide prevention programs. The findings highlight the need of taking the sociocultural context into consideration in the planning of youth suicide prevention strategies.
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 2006, 118(5-6): 152-9
OBJECTIVES: The first documented conference on suicide among school pupils was held by the Viennese Psychoanalytical Society in 1910, yet since then research on youth suicide in Vienna and Austria has been sparse. We investigated cases of suicide among Viennese minors over a period of 57 years in terms of prevalence, gender differences, suicide methods and monthly distribution. METHODS: We studied registered suicides among Viennese youths aged 19 or younger occurring between 1946 and 2002 (n = 683). RESULTS: The total suicide rate and the rates for male and female suicides among Viennese minors decreased over the period studied. The mean suicide rate was 6.2 per 100,000 (statistics on suicides per 100,000 were available only for the period 1953-2002), with a male-female ratio of 2.1:1. The predominant suicide method was domestic gas until its detoxification in Vienna. From 1976 jumping from a height became the most common suicide method of Viennese minors; it was also the predominant method among females, whereas hanging was the predominant method among males. Since 1996 the percentage of firearm suicides among males has doubled, and jumping suicides among females have tripled. A greater number of suicides among minors took place during the months of January, June, October and December. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide rates of Viennese minors are on the decline, corresponding to a reported decrease in the general suicide rate in Austria. In view of an observed recent increase in firearm suicides among males and jumping suicides among females aged 19 and younger, further monitoring as well as legal and environmental prevention measures are needed.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 May 9;
[Epub ahead of print]
The etiology of functional dysphonia is still unclear, but psychological factors are assumed to play an important role . The purpose of this report is to investigate the impact of depression and anxiety in functional dysphonia. Sixty-one patients with functional dysphonia were screened for additional psychiatric disorders (besides 300.11) by a clinical psychiatric interview. They were then compared with healthy controls, matched by age, sex and occupation, with respect to self-reported symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, and specific anxiety concerning health. The patients had significantly higher scores than the controls in depressive symptoms, in the symptoms of nonspecific and general anxiety, and in the symptoms of specific anxiety concerning health. Fifty-seven percent of the patients also fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for a mood disorder, an anxiety disorder, or an adjustment disorder. Multivariate analysis of covariance, performed to correct for the influence of co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses on self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety, confirmed significant differences between patients and controls in the symptoms of depression and specific anxiety concerning "somatic complaints." Both symptoms of depression and anxiety should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic as well as the therapeutic process of patients with functional dysphonia.
Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Sep;8(3):487-8.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005 Jul;193(7):438-43.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005
World Psychiatry, 2004, 3(2): 102-3
Journal of psychosomatic research, 2004, 56(1): 35-45
OBJECTIVE: This is the first comprehensive review to summarize the research literature regarding anxiety symptomatology and disorders following miscarriage. METHODS: Both "controlled" and "uncontrolled" designs are considered, with the inferential limitations of studies lacking comparison groups highlighted. RESULTS: The limited research available suggests that miscarrying women are at increased risk for anxiety symptoms immediately following miscarriage and continuing until approximately 4 months post-loss. Beyond 4 months, reports are inconsistent. There is evidence to suggest increased risk for some anxiety disorders in the 6 months following loss; however, studies using larger sample sizes and comparison groups are needed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first review to consider the incidence of anxiety disorders following miscarriage, as well as the psychological impact of loss on the pregnancy subsequent to miscarriage, and the impact on partners of miscarrying women. Areas warranting further study are noted and are intended to guide future investigation.
Res. 2004 Jan;56(1):35-45.
Psychiatry Suppl. 2004 Feb;46:s45-52.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the availability and uptake of health and welfare services by women with postnatal depression in different countries. AIMS: Within the context of a cross-cultural research study, to develop and test methods for undertaking quantitative health services research in postnatal depression. METHOD: Interviews with service planners and the collation of key health indicators were used to obtain a profile of service availability and provision. A service use questionnaire was developed and administered to a pilot sample in a number of European study centres. RESULTS: Marked differences in service access and use were observed between the centres, including postnatal nursing care and contacts with primary care services. Rates of use of specialist services were generally low. Common barriers to access to care included perceived service quality and responsiveness. On the basis of the pilot work, a postnatal depression version of the Service Receipt Inventory was revised and finalised. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study demonstrated the methodological feasibility of describing and quantifying service use, highlighted the varied and often limited use of care in this population, and indicated the need for an improved understanding of the resource needs and implications of postnatal depression.
Psychiatry Suppl. 2004 Feb;46:s24-30.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that stressors may trigger the onset of a depressive episode in vulnerable women. A new UK interview measure, the Contextual Assessment of the Maternity Experience (CAME), was designed to assess major risk factors for emotional disturbances, especially depression, during pregnancy and post-partum. AIMS: With in the context of a cross-cultural study, to establish the usefulness of the CAME, and to test expected associations of the measure with characteristics of the social context and with major or minor depression. METHOD: The CAME was administered antenatally and postnatally in ten study sites, respectively to 296 and 249 women. Affective disorder throughout pregnancy and up to 6 months postnatally was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IVAxis I Disorders. RESULTS: Adversity, poor relationship with either a partner or a confidant, and negative feelings about the pregnancy all predicted onset of depression during the perinatal period. CONCLUSIONS: The CAME was able to assess major domains relevant to the psychosocial context of the maternity experience in different cultures. Overall, the instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties in its first use in different cultural settings.
Psychiatry Suppl. 2004 Feb;46:s17-23.
BACKGROUND: To date, no study has used standardised diagnostic assessment procedures to determine whether rates of perinatal depression vary across cultures. AIMS: To adapt the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) for assessing depression and other non-psychotic psychiatric illness perinatally and to pilot the instrument in different centres and cultures. METHOD: Assessments using the adapted SCID and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were conducted during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum with 296 women from ten sites in eight countries. Point prevalence rates during pregnancy and the postnatal period and adjusted 6-month period prevalence rates were computed for caseness, depression and major depression. RESULTS: The third trimester and 6-month point prevalence rates for perinatal depression were 6.9% and 8.0%, respectively. Postnatal 6-month period prevalence rates for perinatal depression ranged from 2.1% to 31.6% across centres and there were significant differences in these rates between centres. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that the SCID was successfully adapted for this context. Further research on determinants of differences in prevalence of depression across cultures is needed.
Psychiatry Suppl. 2004 Feb;46:s10-6.
BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression seems to be a universal condition with similar rates in different countries. However, anthropologists question the cross-cultural equivalence of depression, particularly at a life stage so influenced by cultural factors. AIMS: To develop a qualitative method to explore whether postnatal depression is universally recognised, attributed and described and to enquire into people's perceptions of remedies and services for morbid states of unhappiness within the context of local services. METHOD: The study took place in 15 centres in 11 countries and drew on three groups of informants: focus groups with new mothers, interviews with fathers and grandmothers, and interviews with health professionals. Textual analysis of these three groups was conducted separately in each centre and emergent themes compared across centres. RESULTS: All centres described morbid unhappiness after childbirth comparable to postnatal depression but not all saw this as an illness remediable by health interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings of this study support the universality of a morbid state of unhappiness following childbirth, they also support concerns about the cross-cultural equivalence of postnatal depression as an illness requiring the intervention of health professionals; this has implications for future research.
Ment Health. 2002 Nov;5(4):129-49.
We review the research literature regarding affective symptomatology and disorders following miscarriage, with an emphasis on controlled studies and those that have been published since the last review article in 1996. The current review draws a sharp distinction between controlled and uncontrolled designs and clarifies the proper inferences that may be drawn from each, as only with an appropriate comparison group can it be determined whether the affective reactions following miscarriage are a specific consequence of the reproductive loss or of other life events common in women of reproductive age. In addition to providing an update of the literature on depression in the aftermath of miscarriage and associated risk factors, we also discuss reproductive loss in the context of attachment theory and grief, and present information on topics that were not covered extensively (or at all) by prior reviews, such as issues related to a pregnancy subsequent to miscarriage and the impact of miscarriage on the partners of miscarrying women. In the final section, treatment options relevant to miscarriage are presented.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002 Jan;35(1):29-30.
Klin Wochenschr. 2001 Sep 17;113(17-18):641-6.
For many women childbirth is one of the most impressive life-events, but this period of life may also be a phase of increased vulnerability for psychiatric illness. 10-15% of women develop a postnatal depression (PND) after the birth of a child, and 1@1000 suffer from a puerperal psychosis. Despite the high prevalence, with estimates of approximately 10,000 women suffering annually from postnatal psychiatric disturbances in Austria, there has been a lack of medical attendance for these women and their children. Motivated by a research initiative from the EU on transcultural aspects of postnatal depression (PND) with 17 participating research centers world-wide, a research team at the Vienna University Clinic for Psychiatry initiated the investigation of conditions for mother-child-admissions at 31 psychiatric wards in Austria. These departments were asked about the possibility of conjoint mother-child-admission, and their experiences with this form of admission; 23 departments (74.2%) provided information. A total of 12 departments responded that they theoretically accepted mothers with their babies; however, they also indicated that until now these conjoint admissions had been performed only very rarely or not at all. Based on many years of experience in the field of postpartum mental health in Great Britain, British researchers have developed guidelines for need assessment and health care provision for women with postpartum psychiatric disorders. With the help of these guidelines, the Viennese team of psychiatrists tried to develop fundamental concepts for need assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients suffering from postpartum mental illness in Austria.
Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;62(6):432-8.
BACKGROUND: Several previous studies have established that miscarriage is a risk factor for depressive symptoms and disorder. By contrast, research on miscarriage as a possible risk factor for anxiety symptoms is inconclusive, and for anxiety disorders, sparse and uninformative. The current study examines the incidence of and relative risk for 3 DSM-III anxiety disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder, and phobic disorders) within the 6 months following miscarriage. Adequate diagnostic data on other anxiety disorders were not available. METHOD: Using a cohort design, we tested whether women who miscarry are at increased risk for a first or recurrent episode of an anxiety disorder in the 6 months following loss. The miscarriage cohort consisted of women attending a medical center for spontaneous abortion (N = 229); the comparison group was a population-based cohort of women drawn from the community (N = 230). RESULTS: Among miscarrying women, 3.5% experienced a recurrent episode of OCD, compared with 0.4% of community women (relative risk [RR] = 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 63.7). The relative risk for noncomorbid panic disorder was substantial (RR = 3.6), albeit not statistically significant (95% CI = 0.8 to 17.2). There was no strong evidence for increased risk for phobic disorders or agoraphobia, combined or considered separately, in the 6 months following loss. Relative risk for all 3 disorders combined was 1.5 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.3). CONCLUSION: In this first miscarriage cohort study using a concurrent frequency-matched comparison group, miscarriage was a substantial risk factor for an initial or recurrent episode of OCD. Given statistical power limitations of this investigation, the current findings do not preclude a possible contribution of miscarriage to risk for other anxiety disorders.
Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001 Apr;80(4):326-30.
BACKGROUND: We conducted a prospective study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Vienna to investigate associations between serum testosterone levels and maternal peripartal mood states. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-two pregnant women at term (38 to 40 weeks' gestation) took part in the study. Blood samples for plasma testosterone levels and other biochemicals were obtained prepartum, and on the 1st and 3rd day postpartum. Mood was assessed with the McNair Profile of Mood States (POMS) at term pregnancy and daily from the first day after delivery until discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: The final study population consisted of 193 women. Serum testosterone levels correlated significantly with maternal depression scores, both pre- and post partum (at term r=0.148, p=0.04; 1st day postpartum r=0.156, p=0.03; and 2nd day postpartum r=0.186, p=0.02, respectively). Testosterone concentrations also correlated with anger prepartum (r=0.164, p=0.02) and on the third day after delivery (r=0.188, p=0.02). No significant correlation between testosterone concentration and fatigue and vigor both pre- and post partum, respectively were found. CONCLUSION: Serum testosterone levels correlate with depression and anger in the first postpartum days.
Psychother Pract Res. 2001 Spring;10(2):124-31.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy in the individual treatment of antepartum and postpartum depression. The current investigation extends prior work by examining the efficacy of a group IPT approach for the treatment of postpartum depression. Depression scores of 17 women diagnosed with postpartum depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria) decreased significantly from pre- to post-treatment. Follow-up assessments at 6 months revealed continuation of the treatment effect. Results indicate that IPT adapted for a group model has positive implications for the treatment of postpartum depression, demonstrating both short-term and longer-term effects in the reduction of depressive symptomatology. Study limitations include the small sample size, absence of control group, possible bias in therapist's assessments, and lack of monitoring adherence, which may have jeopardized the accuracy of the results.
Psychiatr Scand. 2000 Jul;102(1):71-3.
OBJECTIVE: The utility of several self-report symptom inventories were examined for detecting postpartum depression (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). METHOD: Fifty women (3 or 6 months postpartum), at heightened risk for MDD, completed several depression and anxiety symptom checklists. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained via SCID interview. RESULTS: Rates of MDD (n=9) and AD (n=9) were equivalent in this sample, with minimal diagnostic overlap. While all the self-report depression inventories screened accurately for MDD, none discriminated AD sensitively and reliably. CONCLUSION: The frequent occurrence of AD emphasizes the need to identify appropriate screening instruments for postpartum anxiety disorders.
Disord. 2000 Jul;59(1):13-21.
BACKGROUND: Although minor depressive disorder is of considerable clinical and public health importance, it has received limited research attention relative to major depressive disorder. This study examines the incidence rate and relative risk for minor depressive disorder following miscarriage. METHODS: Using a cohort design we tested whether miscarrying women are at increased risk for an episode of minor depression (diagnosed based on research criteria proposed in Appendix B of DSM-IV) in the 6 months following loss. The miscarriage cohort consisted of women attending a medical center for spontaneous abortion (n=229); the comparison group was a population-based cohort of women drawn from the community (n=230). RESULTS: Among miscarrying women, 5.2% experienced an episode of minor depression, compared with 1.0% of community women. The overall relative risk for an episode of minor depression for miscarrying women was 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-23.6). Relative risk did not vary by length of gestation at the time of loss or attitude toward the pregnancy. The majority of episodes in miscarrying women began within 1 month following loss. Limitations: Minor depression was relatively rare in both study cohorts. The resulting limits on statistical power reduced our ability to identify factors, such as sociodemographic or reproductive history variables that might moderate the effect of miscarriage on risk for minor depression. CONCLUSIONS: These results, in the context of prior work showing increased risks of major depression and depressive symptoms following miscarriage, lend some support to the conceptualization of minor depressive disorder as part of a continuum of symptom severity. Miscarrying women should be evaluated for depression at their follow-up medical visits.
CONTEXT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) that arises in adolescence impairs functioning and is associated with suicide risk, but little is known about its continuity into adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of adolescent-onset MDD into adulthood. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective case-control study. Seventy-three subjects had onset of MDD based on systematic clinical assessment during adolescence (Tanner stage III-V) and 37 controls had no evidence of past or current psychiatric disorders, and also were assessed in adolescence (assessment years: 1977-1985). Follow-up was conducted 10 to 15 years after the initial assessment by an independent team without knowledge of initial diagnosis (follow-up years: 1992-1996). SETTING: Cases were identified at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, New York City, NY; controls were recruited from the community. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide and suicide attempts, psychiatric diagnoses, treatment utilization, and social functioning. RESULTS: Clinical outcomes of adolescent-onset MDD into adulthood compared with control subjects without psychiatric illness include a high rate of suicide (7.7%); a 5-fold increased risk for first suicide attempt; a 2-fold increased risk of MDD, but not other psychiatric disorders; an increased occurrence of psychiatric and medical hospitalization; and impaired functioning in work, social, and family life. Thirty-seven percent of those with adolescent MDD survived without an episode of MDD in adulthood vs 69% of the control participants (relative risk, 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.7; P<.05]). CONCLUSION: There is substantial continuity, specificity, morbidity, and potential mortality from suicide into adulthood in adolescent-onset MDD patients. Now that empirically based guides to their treatment are becoming available, early identification and treatment seems warranted.