Andreas Karwautz aktualisierten diese Seite letztmalig am
Forschung - Publikationsliste
nach Themen gereiht (zur Übersicht):
Nach ICD-10 (WHO):
G 40, G41Epilepsy Behav, 2007, 10(4): 560-564
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A benign disorder? Personality traits and
B. Plattner, G. Pahs, J. Kindler, R. P. Williams, R. E. Hall, H. Mayer, H.
Steiner and M. Feucht
OBJECTIVE: Since the
clinical observations published by Janz in 1957, the presence of personality
irregularities in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been
described repeatedly, but never quantified using standardized assessments. The
aim of the present study was to investigate whether juveniles with a short
history of JME exhibit psychopathological symptoms and/or personality
irregularities. METHOD: We used standardized assessments, the Youth Self Report
(YSR) and the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI). RESULTS: Of 38 patients who
fulfilled the study entry criteria, 25 agreed to participate and completed all
surveys. On the YSR, our sample exhibited twice the amount of psychiatric
symptoms than age-matched norms. Furthermore, psychopathological symptoms
increased with duration of JME. According to WAI results, JME significantly
affected self-restraint: patients with longer disease duration showed less
self-control. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with JME present not only with
neurological abnormalities but also with significant psychopathology and
personality irregularities. Our data suggest that psychological and behavioral
changes are dynamic processes dependent on the progression of the disease.
Epilepsy research, 2006, 72(1): 39-48
Spacial perception and spatial memory in children with benign childhood epilepsy
with centro-temporal spikes (BCECTS)
S. Volkl-Kernstock, U. Willinger and M. Feucht
Despite the benign prognosis regarding the response of
seizures to treatment, some evidence now exists that patients with benign
childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BCECTS) may have
neuropsychological deficits sometimes leading to academic underachievement.
There is, however, no general agreement on the exact profile of functions
disturbed. This study was designed to identify significant deficits in spatial
perception and memory in children with BCECTS (ages 6-10 years) compared with
healthy controls matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. The
neuropsychological test battery administered consisted of the HAWIK-III, the "Tubinger
Luria Christensen Neuropsychological Test Set for Children", the "Kaufman
Assessment Battery for Children" and the "Differential Neuropsychological Test".
Twenty-two patients and 22 control subjects completed all tests. Children with
BCECTS exhibited significant deficits in higher functions of spatial perception,
including spatial orientation, as well as in basal and complex spatial memory.
Deficits were independent of the lateralization of the epileptogenic foci and
independent of anti-convulsive drug treatment.
Epilepsy Res. 2006 Feb 25; [Epub
ahead of print]
Evaluation of CACNA1H in European patients with childhood absence epilepsy.
Chioza B, Everett K, Aschauer H, Brouwer O, Callenbach P, Covanis A, Dulac O,
Durner M, Eeg-Olofsson O, Feucht M, Friis M, Heils A, Kjeldsen M, Larsson
K, Lehesjoki AE, Nabbout R, Olsson I, Sander T, Siren A, Robinson R, Rees M,
CACNA1H was evaluated in a resource of
Caucasian European patients with childhood absence epilepsy by linkage analysis
and typing of sequence variants previously identified in Chinese patients.
Linkage analysis of 44 pedigrees provided no evidence for a locus in the CACNA1H
region and none of the Chinese variants were found in 220 unrelated patients.
Neurology 2004, 63(2): 324-8
H Mayer, F Benninger, L Urak, B Plattner, J Geldner, M
EKG Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents with Symptomatic Temporal Lobe
Neurology 2004, Jul
BACKGROUND: Changes in cardiac rate and rhythm are often found in
adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and could be involved in the
pathogenesis of sudden unexplained death (SUDEP). However, little is known about
heart rate (HR) variability in pediatric patients with TLE. OBJECTIVES: To
investigate ictal and peri-ictal HR abnormalities in children and adolescents
with medically refractory symptomatic TLE and to determine the influence of
focus localization and laterality. METHODS: Patients younger than 18 years, with
drug-resistant unilateral symptomatic TLE and presenting with at least one
habitual complex partial seizure (CPS) during presurgical noninvasive video-EEG
monitoring, were enrolled. Synchronous single-channel EKG recordings were
analyzed during the preictal, ictal, and postictal stages. RESULTS: Twenty
patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventy-two temporal lobe seizures (TLSs)
were analyzed. Ictal tachycardia was found in 71 TLSs (98%), whereas ictal
bradycardia was not observed. During preictal stages, tachycardia occurred in 20
seizures and mild bradycardia in 3. In 44 seizures (62%), tachycardia was still
present >60 seconds after EEG seizure termination. Cluster analysis revealed
significant differences in HR evolution depending on location and side of
seizure onset: Early and high HR increase was primarily associated with right
mesial TLSs. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular dysregulation is common during temporal
lobe CPSs in children. These results confirm a right hemispheric lateralization
of sympathetic cardiac control.
Seizure 2004, 13(7): 491-3
Edith Reiter, Martha Feucht, Erwin Hauser, Michael Freilinger and Rainer
Changes in body mass index during long-term topiramate therapy in paediatric
epilepsy patients-a retrospective analysis.
Seizure 2004 (available online since 20 January 2004)
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of topiramate (TPM) on body
mass index (BMI) in paediatric epilepsy patients and to examine predictors of
weight loss. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: University
clinic epilepsy outpatient department. SUBJECTS: Patients below age 18 years who
received TPM for at least 12 months. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Changes in
BMI (kg/m2) standard deviation scores (S.D.S.) from baseline to the follow-up
periods of 12, 24 and 36 months were evaluated. The repeated measures t-test for
paired samples, revealed significant decreases for BMI S.D.S. at 12 months (P =
0.004; n = 53) and 24 months (P = 0.044; n = 35), but no significant decrease at
36 months (n = 21). Analysis of variance revealed a predictor value of sex for
BMI S.D.S. at 12 months (females more likely to lose weight; P = 0.037) and a
predictor value of baseline BMI for BMI S.D.S. at 24 months (patients with a
higher baseline BMI were more likely to lose weight; P = 0.047). CONCLUSION:
Weight loss is common in paediatric epilepsy patients who receive TPM and is
sustained for at least one year. The pattern of weight loss differs according to
sex and baseline BMI.
Epilepsia; in press
Jürgen Sperner, Peter Borusiak, Cornelia Bussmann, Martha Feucht, Stephan
König, Bernd Kruse, Stefan Kuczaty, Heinz Lauffer, Burkhard Püst,
Robert Sassen, Hans-Ludwig Spohr, Susanne Rinnert, Gabriele Wohlrab, and Ingrid
Long-term Outcome of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with
Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy - Experience of the German Speaking Countries.
Epilepsia; in press
Annals of Neurology
2003, 54: 820-823
Rossmanith W, Raffelsberger T, Roka J, Kornek B, Feucht M,
The expanding mutational spectrum of MERRF substitution G8361A in the
mitochondrial tRNALys gene
In a case of childhood-onset myoclonus epilepsy with
(MERRF), a hitherto unreported mutation within the mitochondrial tRNALys
gene was identified as the cause of the disease. Substitution G8361A was
maternally inherited, heteroplasmic in all tissues tested, and correlated with
mitochondrial dysfunction in individual muscle fibers. The growing number of
MERRF-associated mutations within the tRNALys gene affirms the
specific role of this mitochondrial tRNA in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Epilepsy Res 2002 Jan;48(1-2):103-10
Semiology of temporal lobe epilepsy in children and adolescents value in
lateralizing the seizure onset zone.
Olbrich A, Urak L, Groppel G, Serles W, Novak K, Porsche B, Benninger F,
T, Baumgartner C, Feucht M.
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and lateralizing value of clinical seizure
symptoms in children and adolescents with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy
(TLE). METHODS: Patients enrolled had to be <18 years of age and seizure free at
follow-up for at least 12 months after epilepsy surgery. Patients were assigned
to two age groups, children (age<12 years) and adolescents (age>12 and <18
years). Video-tapes were reviewed blinded to patients' demographic data and
results of additional investigations by two independent raters. Clinical signs
of known lateralizing significance in adults and additional clinical signs
without lateralizing value were assessed. RESULTS: 14 patients (eight boys; 2-18
years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Inter-observer agreement was excellent
(kappa coefficient: 0.82). Compared with adult series, no differences were found
concerning overall occurrence of lateralizing signs and lateralizing accuracy.
There were age-related differences, however, concerning the occurrence of
individual signs: secondary generalization, complex automatisms and version were
less frequent in children than in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical signs of
lateralizing value can also be found in children and adolescents, provided that
the evaluation protocols used consider developmental aspects.
Neurology 2000 Aug 8;55(3):432-4
Ictal urinary urge indicates seizure onset in the nondominant temporal lobe.
Baumgartner C, Groppel G, Leutmezer F, Aull-Watschinger S, Pataraia E, Feucht
Trinka E, Unterberger I, Bauer G.
ABSTRACT: The authors describe six patients with medically refractory
temporal lobe epilepsy whose seizures were characterized by an aura of ictal
urinary urge. All seizures originated in the nondominant temporal lobe as
evidenced from interictal spikes, ictal EEG, and MRI. Ictal SPECT, which was
obtained in two patients, showed a hyperperfusion of the insular cortex,
indicating a critical role of the insula for the generation of this symptom.
Ictal urinary urge represents a new lateralizing sign indicating a seizure onset
in the nondominant temporal lobe.
Biol Psychiatry 1999 Oct 1;46(7):997-1002
Possible association between childhood absence epilepsy and the gene encoding
Feucht M, Fuchs K, Pichlbauer E, Hornik K, Scharfetter J, Goessler R, Fureder T,
Cvetkovic N, Sieghart W, Kasper S, Aschauer H.
BACKGROUND: Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) is considered to have a
predominantly, perhaps exclusively, genetic background. To date, genes
responsible for susceptibility to CAE have not been identified. The object of
the present study was to test association between CAE and the genes encoding the
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type-A receptor subunits alpha 5 (GABRA5) and
beta 3 (GABRB3) located on the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q11-q13). METHODS: A
family-based candidate gene approach was applied: 50 Austrian nuclear families
ascertained for the presence of an affected child were investigated. GABRA5 and
GABRB3 subunit genes were genotyped using DNA gained from peripheral blood
samples by Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Genetic association was tested
using a Monte Carlo Version of the multi-allele Transmission-Disequilibrium Test
(TDT). RESULTS: The TDT displayed significant overall association with GABRB3 (p
= .0118). CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that the tested polymorphism may
be either directly involved in the etiology of CAE or in linkage disequilibrium
with disease-predisposing sites.
Med Biol Eng Comput 1999 Mar;37(2):208-17
Application of correlation dimension and pointwise dimension for non-linear
topographical analysis of focal onset seizures.
Feucht M, Moller U, Witte H, Benninger F, Asenbaum S, Prayer D, Friedrich MH.
For many patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, non-invasive
evaluation fails to provide sufficient information to permit surgical treatment.
Since there are also definite risks and considerable costs associated with
invasive procedures, new (non-invasive) techniques are required. This study
provides empirical evidence that a non-linear approach applied to ictal surface
electroencephalograms (EEGs) can help to delineate the area of seizure onset and
may prove useful in complementing visual analysis of the EEG. Multichannel EEGs,
recorded from eight patients with different drug-resistant localisation-related
epilepsies, were analysed using the concept of correlation dimension and two
extensions based on the pointwise dimension. The latter also provided results in
cases where assessment of the correlation dimension was not feasible.
Comparative values between 2 and 6 were accepted as the result of the
algorithms, mostly 3-4 for the EEG channels strongly reflecting epileptic
activity, and 4-6 for the other signals. The proportion of accepted pointwise
values was usually 200-800% for strong epileptic EEG activity compared to the
other data. The approach permitted the characterisation of the scalp area
reflecting epileptic activity. The results obtained were in perfect concordance
with those obtained during pre-surgical work-up and confirmed by the
Cereb Cortex 1998 Sep;8(6):524-33
Nonlinear dynamics of 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges recorded during typical
absence seizures in children.
Feucht M, Moller U, Witte H, Schmidt K, Arnold M, Benninger F, Steinberger K,
One-channel routine recordings of the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) from
unmedicated children strictly classified as unprovoked typical (3 c/s) absence
seizures were selected. The dynamics of spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) were
then examined by means of autocorrelation, correlation dimension, averaged
pointwise dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent. For one EEG signal with
pronounced spike-and-wave (SW) patterns, these measures were used complementary
to a surrogate data method, a nonlinear (SETAR) modeling approach, and a SW
simulation procedure providing five types of SW test signals. The SETAR model
exhibited stationary SW dynamics, visually very similar to the EEG target
signal, and with clear nonlinear structure. According to the results, the EEG
episodes investigated represent low-dimensional dynamics, possibly recorded
during nonstationary periods. Arguments that justify the assumption of
deterministic chaos in our EEG signals were not obtained with the current
methods. From the results one may conclude that two global oscillatory modes are
present for the model, and three modes are active during the EEG recording
Neuroreport 1997 Jul 7;8(9-10):2193-7
Simultaneous spike detection and topographic classification in pediatric surface
Feucht M, Hoffmann K, Steinberger K, Witte H, Benninger F, Arnold M, Doering A.
In this study, an algorithm is introduced for the automatic detection and
simultaneous topographic classification of interictal regional spike activity in
pediatric surface EEG records. The algorithm is based on the classification of
the topographic distribution of instantaneous power by means of a 'group'
trained classifier. The results of automatic spike analysis were compared with
the decisions of two experienced electroencephalographers. Four routine EEG
records exhibiting (multi)regional spikes were examined. The mean selectivity
for the automatic spike detector was 84.6% (mean sensitivity 88.1%, mean
specificity 89.3%) and for the electroencephalographers 85.3%. All spikes
detected by the algorithm were simultaneously classified according to their
topographic characteristics. The results of automatic spike classification
(lateralization/localization) corresponded to the results of visual analysis.
Wien Klin Wochenschr 1997 Mar 28;109(6):180-91
Presurgical diagnosis of epilepsy and surgical epilepsy treatment
Baumgartner C, Czech T, Feucht M, Schindler E, Podreka I.
20% of patients with focal epilepsy suffer from medically refractory seizures.
Many of these patients can be cured by a surgical intervention removing the
brain area where the seizures are originating (epileptogenic zone). 6000
patients in Austria would benefit from epilepsy surgery with an additional
150-200 new patients appearing each year. Potential candidates have to undergo
an extensive presurgical work-up. During the non-invasive Phase I each patient
is evaluated with an intensive video-EEG monitoring with scalp-EEG, a high
resolution MRI, a SPECT and/or PET, a neuropsychological evaluation and a
Wada-test. If the epileptogenic zone cannot be localized adequately with these
methods, invasive electrophysiological techniques (epidural Peg-electrodes,
Foramen-ovale electrodes, depth electrodes, subdural strip and grid electrodes)
have to be applied. Operative strategies for temporal lobe epilepsies include
antero-mesial temporal lobe resections and selective amygdala-hippocampectomies.
Extratemporal epilepsies are treated by cortical resections guided by structural
and electrophysiological parameters. The new technique of multiple subpial
transections facilitates treatment of seizures originating in essential brain
regions. Catastrophic epilepsies of early childhood often are caused by
extensive pathologies affecting one hemisphere and can be treated successfully
by large multilobar resections or hemispherectomies. Epilepsy surgery renders
70-80% of patients seizure free and thus can be regarded as an effective and
safe treatment option for patients with medically refractory focal epilepsies.
Neurosci Lett 1996 Jun 28;211(3):195-8
Analysis and classification of interictal spike discharges in benign partial
epilepsy of childhood on the basis of the Hilbert transformation.
Hoffmann K, Feucht M, Witte H, Benninger F, Bolten J.
The spatial distribution of instantaneous power during the occurrence of
rolandic spikes (computed via Hilbert transformation) can be utilized for
classification of topographically different spike types. By visual analysis of
the instantaneous power maps we found seven characteristic spike classes which
correspond to the results of visual analysis of potential distribution. A neural
network (NN) was trained with representatives of these classes. Single
instantaneous power maps of 55/56 visually selected rolandic spikes, as well as
map sequences of averaged spike segments (on-line) of 17 patients, were
correctly classified by means of NN. The sensitivity of the NN for spikes from
unknown patients was 98%. The classification scheme enables an objective
classification of (multi-) regional spikes for selective averaging and for
studies dealing with syndrome classification.
Neurosci Lett 1995 Jun 16;192(3):177-80
Slow potential shifts preceding human focal paroxysmal discharges, as
represented by spikes of benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood.
Uhl F, Spoljaric AM, Feucht M, Benninger F.
We examined the slow potential shifts preceding interictal spikes in the scalp
EEGs of the children with benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood (BREC). In
contrast to our expectations and the observations reported by Stodieck and
Wieser (1987), we were not able to detect focal negative slow shifts preceding
interictal discharges. Possible reasons for this result are as follows. The
cerebral event to which we triggered might have been too 'weak'. Another problem
is that not every single spike generated in the deep reaches the surface. Thus,
the moment, a spike occurs in the scalp-recordings does not necessarily
represent the moment the brain changes from one state to another. The reference
electrode might also play a role in obscuring any slow shift.
Epilepsia 1994 Sep-Oct;35(5):993-8
Gamma-vinyl-GABA (vigabatrin) in the therapy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: an open
Feucht M, Brantner-Inthaler S.
The antiepileptic effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl GABA, VGB) in children has
been demonstrated in controlled and open studies. According to the literature,
results were good to excellent in partial seizures (with and without becoming
secondarily generalized) and promising in infantile spasms (IS). In patients
with myoclonic epilepsies of early childhood and especially those with
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), the effect of VGB has been investigated only to a
limited extent and the pattern of response was variable. The present open,
add-on, dose-ranging study was initiated to assess the long-term effect and
safety of VGB in a cohort of 20 children with LGS who were not responding
sufficiently to first-line drug monotherapy with valproate (VPA) instead of
adding classical second-line antiepileptic drugs [AEDs: benzodiazepines (BZD),
phenobarbital (PB), primidone (PRM)], which usually are associated with rapid
diminution of their antiepileptic properties and a high frequency of side
effects. Eighty-five percent of children experienced a 50-100% reduction in
seizure frequency, even after dose reduction of VPA. No serious side effects
occurred except in 1 patient who experienced dyskinesia. Mood changes, sedation,
ataxia, and hypersalivation, well-known complications of other AEDs, were not
Wien Klin Wochenschr 1990 Mar 30;102(7):210-2
Computerized tomography in epilepsy in children
Hauser E, Feucht M, Lischka A, Rosenmayr F, Groh C.
We present a retrospective study of 160 children attending our epilepsy
out-patient department. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 123 (77%)
patients, namely all children with the exception of those with febrile seizures,
typical absence seizures, and benign Rolandic epilepsy. Incidence of CT
abnormalities and their correlation with clinical features were evaluated. The
CT scan was normal in 84 and abnormal in 39 patients. Although in general, the
detection of abnormality on CT will not alter the management of the child, in a
small percentage (2%) of our cases a lesion treatable by surgery was discovered.
The indications for CT are summarized.
EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Elektromyogr Verwandte Geb 1989 Sep;20(3):185-8
The variability of the number and daily distribution of spike wave seizures in
two 24-hour long-term EEG recordings made one shortly after the other
Mayr N, Zeitlhofer J, Feucht M, Deecke L.
30 patients suffering from primary generalized epileptic seizures were
investigated twice in intervals of 1-7 days by means of mobile long-term-EEG
monitoring. The total number of paroxysms showed a variability from 53% to 187%,
the time of maximum paroxysmal activity varied in between 2.76 hours to 5.40
hours for the whole group; the results for adults, children and patients
with/without antiepileptic medication did not differ much. Our findings suggest,
that the results of one single 24 hours long-term-EEG investigation must be
interpreted with great caution.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1989 Aug;57(8):337-46
Differential diagnosis of epilepsies in early childhood
Spiel G, Feucht M, Hellwig E.
The last twenty years have seen substantial advances in knowledge concerning the
diagnosis as well as the long-term evolution of epilepsies in infants and
children. There is, however, no general agreement among epileptologists on the
framework of epileptic syndroms in infancy and childhood. The main problems are
the lack of a uniform terminology and the fact that there is little unanimity
concerning definitions and what may be included under individual syndromic
rubrics. In consequence the nosological limits between the various syndromes
described are not distinct and they very often represent a heterogenous group of
disorders and not a single entity. The present paper reviews the literature
recently published and discusses diagnostic difficulties and nosological
problems. In addition the attempt has been made to elaborate a
"multi-dimensional" classification of syndromes, based on clinical (using the
terminology of the international classification) and electroencephalographic
criteria, but also taking into consideration aetiological and evolution data.
Results show that it was possible to differentiate within a cohort of 77 infants
aged 0-24 months (suffering from various types of epileptic disorders) several
distinct and homogenous nosological entities and syndromes. As it is well known
today, that the type of epilepsy which occurs in a child as well as the
prognosis of the disease represent a confluence of age, heredity and structural
brain abnormality, it seems apparent that adequate classification systems have
to take into consideration the complexity of various factors "triggering" the
onset and influencing the course of the disease, even when a number of cases
remains outside resp. "borderline" such a syndromic classification.
Nervenarzt 1988 Mar;59(3):147-53
Etiologic factors in epilepsy as a predictor of response to anticonvulsive drug
Feucht M, Spiel G.
Padiatr Padol 1987;22(3):267-78
Valproic acid monotherapy in epilepsies in childhood and adolescence
Spiel G, Feucht M.
The effectiveness and side effects of a DPA monotherapy were evaluated in 96
children and adolescents over a period of five years. In addition the attempt
has been made to find correlations between sex, age of seizure onset, etiology
of the disease, types of seizures, and EEG abnormalities on the one hand, and
the clinical response to the drug on the other hand. The results are in many
respects similar to other observations with DPA: good therapeutic effect in
cases with seizure onset between the age of 7-10 years, cryptogenic or genetic
etiology, primary generalized seizures, and a generalized pattern in EEG
(without focal changes). On the contrary positive effect of DPA in partial
epilepsies and secondarily generalized epilepsies was seen only in those
patients who had a seizure onset between seven and ten years and a cryptogenic
etiology (syndrome of benign rolandic epilepsy in childhood can be suspected in
Padiatr Padol 1986;21(3):293-302
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) monotherapy in epilepsies with partial and/or
secondary generalized seizures in childhood and adolescence
Spiel G, Feucht M, Thau K.
The effectiveness and side effects of a carbamazepine monotherapy were evaluated
in 40 children and adolescents (22 boys and 18 girls with an age distribution
between 1 and 16 years) over a period of 6 years. In addition the attempt has
been made, to find correlations between sex, age of seizure onset, aetiology of
the disease, types of seizures, and EEG-abnormalities on the one hand, and the
clinical response to the drug on the other. Selection criteria were, that the
patients were under continuous follow-up, that they suffered from partial or/and
secondarily generalized seizures and that Tegretol was the first and only drug
at the beginning of the examination. The treatment with the
Carbamazepine-monotherapy was successful in 63% of the patients, 37% remained
resistant to the treatment. Carbamazepine proved to be effective against partial
seizures as well as secondarily generalized grand-mal-seizures. The therapeutic
range of the serum carbamazepine levels during monotherapy varied between 15-35
mu Mol/l. 40 patients entered, 38 completed the study. In two cases the drug had
to be stopped owing to allergic skin rash due to the drug. No other serious side
effects were observed in any of the remaining 38 patients. The most frequent
laboratory changes were an increase of Gamma-GT and leucopenia. All the cases
who became seizure-free (Responder) were compared with the remaining cases with
unfavourable treatment results (Nonresponder) in order to find out whether there
are significant differences between the two groups, as far as sex, age ... etc.
(see above) are concerned.