Research Group of
Johannes A. Schmid
JC-1 stain of apoptotic
JC-1 (5, 5´, 6, 6´-tetrachloro-1, 1´,
3, 3´-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide) is a lipophilic fluorescent
cation that incorporates into the mitochondrial membrane, where it can form
aggregates due to the physiological membrane potential of mitochondria. This
aggregation changes the fluorescence properties of JC-1 leading to a shift from
green to orange fluorescence. Intact living cells
stained with JC-1 therefore exhibit a pronounced orange fluorescence of
mitochondria, which is detectable by flow analysis (in the FL-2 channel).
Apoptosis results in a break-down of the mitochondrial
membrane potential and a subsequent decrease of the orange fluorescence (and a
slight increase of the green fluorescence). By that means, apoptotic cells can
be easily distinguished from non-apoptotic cells.
JC-1 is prepared as a 1000x stock
solution in DMSO (5 mg/ml).
Approximate detection settings on FACSort:
FL1: 360 V
settings: cell type specific, e.g. for TF-1:
Example of an analysis: