To maintain adequate intrauterine growth maternal metabolism undergo essential changes during pregnancy. If these changes are insufficient the growth and well being of the fetus are decreased. Furthermore if the physiological adaptation to pregnancy is disturbed pregnancy associated diseases like gestational diabetes mellitus or preeclampsia can occur and influencing fetal groth.
Especially twin pregnancies are associated high mortality and morbidity rates to high rates of antepartum complications, preterm delivery and uteroplacental insufficiency. These pregnancies are subject for different scientific studies on intrauterine growth.
Methods & Techniques
Blood sampling and various analyzing methods like ELISA; cell culture and FISH analysis; genetic analysis like PCR.
Leipold H, Knofler M, Gruber C, Haslinger P, Bancher-Todesca D, Worda C: Calpain-10 haplotype combination and association with gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol 103: 1235-1240, 2004
Leipold H, Kautzky-Willer A, Özbal A, Bancher-Todesca D, Worda C: Fetal hyperinsulinism and maternal one hour postload plasma glucose level. Obstet Gynecol 104: 1301-1306, 2004
Worda C, Leipold H, Gruber C, Kautzky-Willer A, Knöfler M, Bancher-Todesca D: Dreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191: 2120-2124, 2004
Leipold H, Knoefler M, Gruber C, Klein K, Haslinger P, Worda C: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol 107: 651-656, 2006
Leipold H, Knoefler M, Gruber C, Huber A, Haslinger P, Worda C.: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha gene variations are not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Soc Gynecol Investig (Reproductive Sciences) 13: 104-107, 2006
Klein K, Mailath-Pokorny M, Elhenicky M, Schmid M, Zeisler H, Worda C: Mean, lowest, and highest pulsatility index of the uterine artery and adverse pregnancy outcome in twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 205: 549.e1-7, 2011