AF023: Thioredoxin

List allergens from this family:

Routes of exposure:
Include only IUIS approved allergens.

Biochemical properties

Thioredoxins are small enzymes that participate in redox reactions via the reversible oxidation of an active center disulfide bond [1]. They serve as general protein disulfide oxidoreductases and interact with a broad range of proteins. Protein disulfide isomerases contain two active redox domains similar to thioredoxins. Redoxins (AllFam:AF131) are redox enzymes closely-related to thioredoxin.

Allergens from this family

Allergenic thioredoxins are found in fungi as well as in plants. The fungal allergens Asp f 28 and Asp f 29 from Aspergillus fumigatus and Mala s 13 from Malassezia sympodialis are thioredoxins, while Alt a 4 from Alternaria alternata is a protein disulfide isomerase [2]. Allergenic thioredoxins from plants include cereal allergens associated with baker's asthma [3].



  1. Holmgren A:
    Thioredoxin structure and mechanism: conformational changes on oxidation of the active-site sulfhydryls to a disulfide.
    Structure 1995, 3, 239-43. [PubMed]
  2. Limacher A, Glaser AG, Meier C, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Zeller S, Scapozza L, Crameri R:
    Cross-reactivity and 1.4-A crystal structure of Malassezia sympodialis thioredoxin (Mala s 13), a member of a new pan-allergen family.
    J Immunol 2007, 178, 389-96. [PubMed]
  3. Weichel M, Glaser AG, Ballmer-Weber BK, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Crameri R:
    Wheat and maize thioredoxins: a novel cross-reactive cereal allergen family related to baker's asthma.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006, 117, 676-81. [PubMed] [Full Text]


Links to Pfam

Family-defining Pfam domains (at least one of these domains is present in each family member):

Pfam domain Pfam clan
PF00085 Thioredoxin CL0172 Thioredoxin-like
PF13848 Thioredoxin-like domain CL0172 Thioredoxin-like

Links to Wikipedia


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